AP Syllabus

  • AP CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

     

    GOALS:

     

    The Advanced Placement chemistry course is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry course usually taken during the first college year.  Students in this course will attain a significant depth of understand of fundamentals and a competence in dealing with chemical problems and their calculations.  This course is designed to meet the Curricular Requirements as described by College Board.  The class meets for 9 50-minute periods in a 6-day cycle.

     

    [C1] Structure of Matter:  Atomic theory and structure, chemical bonding, molecular models, molecular geometry, nuclear chemistry

     

    [C2] States of Matter: gases, liquids and solids, solutions

     

    [C3] Reactions:  reaction types, stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics

     

    [C4] Descriptive Chemistry: chemical reactivity and the products of reactions, relationships in the periodic table, introduction to organic chemistry

     

    [C5] Laboratory: observations, recording data, calculations and interpretation of results, communication of results of experimental work

     

    [C6] Chemical calculations and mathematical formulas of chemical principles

     

    [C7] Laboratory component comparable to college-level chemistry courses including hands-on component and lab notebook

     

    TEXT:  Chemistry: The Central Science by Brown, LeMay and Bursten, 10th Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006, ISBN 0-13-146489-2

     

    Supplemental Sources:

     

     The Ultimate Chemical Equations Handbook by Hague and Smith, Flinn Scientific, Inc. 2001, ISBN 1-877992-63-5

     

    Laboratory Experiments for Chemistry the Central Science by Brown, LeMay and Bursten, 10th Edition, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2006

     

    Advanced Chemistry with Vernier by Randall, 1st Ed., Vernier Software and Technolgy, 2004, ISBN 1-929075-36-7

     

    Chemistry with Computers by Holmquist and Volz, Vernier Software and Technology, 2000, ISBN 0-918731-95-X

     

    Science in Motion:  Mobile educator with equipment such as GC, HPLC, IR., UV-VIS Spectrophotometers

     

    SUMMER ASSIGNMENT:  Students will read and do selected problems from chapters 1-5 and 21, and worksheets from the Ultimate Chemical Equations Handbook.

     

    LABS:  Lab grades will be determined after each experiment based on what appears in your lab notebook.  You will keep a lab notebook in which you will do the write-ups for all experiments including an introduction and objectives, safety notes, data collection, graphs, calculations and analysis of results and discussion of experimental errors.  Additional questions relating to the lab may also be required.    All labs will be student conducted.  The notebook must be brought to class and all data is recorded directly into the notebook at the time of the experiment.  While data collection is done in a lab group, each student completes calculations, analysis of results, and error analysis individually in their notebook.[C5], [C7]

     

    HOMEWORK:  Assignments will be collected and graded.  Assignments will include problems from the end of each chapter.  Additionally, past AP test questions may be assigned as homework.  Sometimes lengthy problems-like those that involve making and deriving information from a graph for example, will be graded separately.  This also goes for past AP Test questions when assigned as homework.

     

    TESTS:  After each unit:  For free response problems, no credit is given if work is not shown.  Partial credit is always given for those portions of a complex problem done correctly, for multiple choice questions, some credit will be deducted for answering questions incorrectly (as on the SAT AP tests). 

    Unit 1:  Measurement, Matter, Molecules and Formula Units   (3 weeks)

     

    Chapter 1:  Matter and Measurement; classification of matter, properties of matter, units of measurement, dimensional analysis [C6]

     

    Chapter 2:  Atoms, Molecules and Ions; Atomic Theory, evidence of atomic structure, modern atomic structure, atomic weight, periodic table, molecular and ionic compounds (writing chemical formulas and nomenclature in cluding acids and bases) [C1]

     

    Labs:  Basic Laboratory Techniques, (measurement, significant figures and dimensional analysis), Gas Chromatography:  separation of a mixture of alcohols (Science in Motion) HPLC:  caffeine analysis (Science in Motion) (6 class periods total) [C5], [C7]

     

     

    Unit 2:  Stoichiometry and Heat of Reaction            (5 and a half weeks)

     

    Chapter 3:  Stoichiometry, calculations with chemical formulas and equations, (formula and molecular weight, percent composition, molar mass, moles and number of particles, determining empirical and molecular formulas, balancing equations, reaction types, reaction stoiochiometry including calculation of amounts of substances, limiting reagents, theoretical and per cent yields. [C3], [C4], [C6]

     

    Chapter 4:  Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry; more reaction types (precipitation, acid-base neutralizations, oxidation-reduction), molarity, solution stoichiometry calculations. [C3], [C4[, [C6]

     

    Chapter 5:  Thermochemistry; energy, 1st Law of Thermodynamics, enthalpy and enthalpies of reaction, Hess’s Law, enthalpies of formation, calorimetry [C3], [C6]

     

    Labs:  Determination of a Chemical Formula, Determination of the Percent Water of Hydration, Determining Mole Ratios in a Chemical Reaction, Determining the Enthalpy of a Reaction, Synthesis of Alum (theoretical and Percent yields).  (12 class periods total) [C5], [C7]

     

    Unit 3:  Atomic Structure and Periodicity            (4 weeks)

     

    Chapter 6:  Electronic Structure of Atoms; wave nature of light, quantum theory, photons, line spectra, uncertainty principle, matter waves, atomic orbitals, electron configurations, quantum number sets, configurations and the periodic table [C1], [C4]

     

    Chapter 7:  Periodic Properties; history of the Periodic Table, effective nuclear charge and shielding, period and group trends in ionization energy, electron affinities, atom and ion sizes, electronegativity.  [C4]

     

    Labs:  Flame Tests    ( 2 periods)

     

    Unit 4:  Bonding, Bonding Theories and Organic Chemistry            (4 weeks)

     

    Chapter 8:  Chemical Bonding; types of bonding, octet rule (and exceptions), ionic bonding and lattice energy, covalent bonding and drawing [C1]

    Lewis structures, bond polarity, resonance structures, bond order, length and strength.

     

    Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories; VSEPR model, molecular shapes and hybridization, multiple bonds ,valence bond theory, molecular orbital theory. [C1]

     

    Chapter 25 Organic Chemistry;  alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, functional groups and reactions that result in their formation, combustion, substitution and addition reactions, [C4]

     

    Labs:  HyperChem, a computer modeling program, IR:  Spectra of plastic films,  Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin ( 9 periods) [C5], [C7]

     

     

     

     

    Unit 5:  States of Matter            (6 weeks)

     

    Chapter 10 Gases;  characteristics of gases, pressure, Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, combined gas law, quantity-volume relationship and Avogadro’s Hypothesis, ideal gas law, Kinetic-Molecular Theory and gas behavior, gas density, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures; effusion, diffusion and Graham’s Law, deviations from ideality and the van der Waal’s equation. [C2], [C6]

     

    Chapter 11:  Intermolecular Forces, Liquid and Solids; K-M theory descriptions, intermolecular forces (dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding), liquid properties (viscosity, surface tension, b.p., vapor pressure, volatility, enthalpy of vaporization); structure, properties and bonding of solids( atomic, molecular, ionic, covalent network, metallic), phase changes and total energy, phase diagrams.[C2]

     

    Chapter 13 Solutions: the solution process, spontaneity and disorder, solution formation, solubility factors, concentration expressions, colligative properties and their calculations [S2], [C6]

     

    Labs:  Molar volume of a gas, Molar mass of a volatile Liquid , Evaporation and Intermolecular attractions., Boyle’s Law, Pressure-temperature relationship in Gases, Freezing Point Depression, Precipitations and Net Ionic Equations, the Activity Series. (18 periods) [C5], [C7]

     

    Units 6 Equilibrium            ( 6 weeks)

     

    Chapter 15 Equilibrium; equilibrium constant and K calculations, Kp and Kc, magnitude of K, K and Q, and predicting reaction direction; heterogeneous equilibria, Le Chatlier’s Principleand stress to equilibrium system  [C3], [C6]

     

    Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria; characteristics of acids and vases, definitions, (Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, Lewis); conjugate acid-base pairs, [H+] concentration and pH, [OH-] and pOH, Kw, strong acids and bases, weak acids and bases, Ka and Kb calculations and relationship, acid-base properties of salt solutions, factors affecting acid  and base strengths. [C3], [C6]

     

    Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria; common ion effect, buffers (composition, capacity, pH range, addition of strong acid or base), buffer calculations, acid-base titrations (strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, polyprotic acids); solubility equilibria, solubility and Ksp, solubility and the common ion effect, solubility and pH, formation of complex ions, precipitations and separation of ions.,  Qualitative Analysis schemes.[C3], [C6]

     

    Labs:  standardization of NaOH, acid-base titrations, Ksp of Ca(OH)2,  Buffers, Qualitative Analysis of an unknown            ( 20 periods) [C5], [C7]

     

     

     

    Unit 7 Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry       ( 3 weeks)

     

    Chapter 19, Thermodynamics; spontaneity, entropy and the 2nd law of thermodynamics, qualitative predictions of DS, entropy changes in reactions, Gibbs free energy, free energy and temperature, free energy and K         [C3], [C6]

     

    Chapter 20:  Electrochemistry; oxidation states, balancing redox, voltaic cells, cell potential at standard conditions, reduction potential tables and the strength of oxidizing and reducing agents, EMF and DG, Nernst equation and finding concentrations, batteries, electrolysis and electrolytic cells, electrolytic calculations.

     

    Labs:  Electrochemistry:  Voltaic Cells            [[C5], [C7]     ( 3 periods)

     

     

    Unit 8 Kinetics and Nuclear Chemistry            ( 3 weeks)

     

    Chapter 15  Chemical Kinetics; factors affecting reaction rates, reaction rates and time, rates and stoichiometry, rate laws, isolation method of determining reaction orders and k, 1st order kinetics, 2nd order kinetics, rate and temperature dependence, Arrhenius equation, collision theory, activation energy, reaction mechanisms, elementary and multi-step mechanisms, rate law for the rate determining step, determining a possible rate law from the proposed mechanism.            [C3], [C6]

     

    Chapter 21:  Nuclear Chemistry; radioactivity, nuclear equations, alpha, beta and gamma decay, stability and radioisotopes, transmutations, nuclear decal calculations , decay constants and half life, binding energy, fission and reactors, fusion,  [C1], [C6]

     

    Labs:  Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide, complex decay of 2 isotopes of Ag (Brezeale reactor/Penn State/State College)            ( 6 periods)            [C5], [C7]

     

     

    Unit 9:  Review             (1 week)

     

    Review of equilibrium thermodynamics, electrochemistry, stoichiometry, bonding, phases, net ionic equations.  Practice tests